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Difference between Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization Examples

By 20 August 2021October 21st, 2022No Comments

difference between depreciation and depletion

Explain why the cost of goods sold increases when inventory decreases. Define the principle of resale price maintenance and explain its advantages and disadvantages.

  • Explanations may also be supplied in the footnotes, particularly if there is a large swing in the depreciation, depletion, and amortization (DD&A) charge from one period to the next.
  • The history of accounting is very ancient like thousands of years.
  • When we think of accountants, we think of people in black suits armed with a calculator, surrounded by numbers and receipts.
  • Accrual accountingpermits companies to recognize capital expenses in periods that reflect the use of the related capital asset.
  • Whereas in the oil company, its resource will have depletion amount being calculated as it is used.
  • Depreciation is on tangible assets whereas depletion is on non-renewable resources.

GAAP requires that a company review its property, plant, and equipment for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the book value of these assets may not be recoverable. To test for impairment, a company compares the total expected cash flows of an asset with the asset’s book value. If future net cash flows are lower than book value, the company recognizes an impairment loss. For this comparison the company groups assets at the lowest level at which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets. We credit the accumulated depreciation account because, as time passes, the company records the depreciation expense that is accumulated in the contra-asset account.

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This reduction in value or expiration of cost of asset is called depletion. Whereas reduction in value of a fixed asset over time by wear and tear constitutes depreciation, expiration of cost, or asset value reduction, by process of removal or extraction, is construed as depletion. When evaluating the impairment of an asset, a company compares the total discounted cash flows expected from the asset with the asset’s book value.

  • The capitalized cost is subsequently allocated as expense as and when the resources are extracted and utilized.
  • Discuss the reasons why a LIFO reserve might decline during a given period and discuss the implications of such a decline for financial analysis.
  • A more appropriate choice for an asset whose benefits are expected to decline over time would be one of the accelerated methods.
  • For this comparison the company groups assets at the lowest level at which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets.
  • These are non-cash deductions from income, and they do not take time value of money into account.
  •  Obsolescence occur when the asset is no longer technologically superior to available alternatives.

Discuss the reasons why a LIFO reserve might decline during a given period and discuss the implications of such a decline for financial analysis. Define and discuss the purpose and impact of suspended passive activity losses. Explain the differences between absorption and variable costing. Explain the difference between a loss and an expense. For example– A coal mine has 10 Million tonnes of coal and the coal extraction is happening at the rate of 1 Million tonnes per year. Since at this rate of extraction the coal mine is being depleted at 10% per year. Example – A company charging 10% depreciation on all their buildings, 25% depreciation on laptops, etc.

Physical Life Versus Service Life

The formula is to take the total costs involved and subtract the salvage value. The resulting number is then divided into the estimated amount of total resource units. Then the total depletion expense is obtained by multiplying the depletion per unit by the number of units sold or used over a certain period. Depreciation is an accounting method used to track the loss of value in fixed assets such as vehicles, equipment, and buildings, spreading the cost of those items over multiple years.

  • Define the principle of resale price maintenance and explain its advantages and disadvantages.
  • And those multiple methods are known ways to assist them in using different methods based on the type of asset they own.
  • The useful life of the patent for accounting purposes is deemed to be 5 years.
  • Company B’s 2011 net income is lower than Company A’s.
  • EBITDAR—an acronym for earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, amortization, and restructuring or rent costs—is a non-GAAP measure of a company’s financial performance.
  • Two of the models used for depreciating assets are discussed below.

The unit depletion rate of a natural resource is the amount of cost that will be consumed divided by the number of output units expected. Land is not considered to have a limited economic life and therefore cannot be depreciated because the time period is undefined. Also, the residual value of land is usually more than the original cost of the land. Depreciation, depletion, and amortization have nothing to do with market value of the assets. Instead, they are a process of rationally and systematically allocating the costs of these assets over the period in which they contribute to the company. Again, depreciation has nothing to do with market value of assets. The impairment test for an asset is to compare the asset’s book value and the future net expected cash flows.

Examples of Depreciable Property

Depreciation specifically refers to most tangible assets such as equipment and automobiles, but such tangible assets specifically exclude natural resources. Depreciation typically relates to tangible assets, like equipment, machinery, and buildings. Amortization, however, involves intangible assets, such as patents, copyrights, and capitalized costs. Even if you do not use the asset, a measure of annual depreciation for that asset will still be recorded for accounting purposes in recognized depreciation tables. It is to spread or allocate the cost of a tangible fixed asset over its estimated economic useful life. In other words, it may be seen as a reduction in the cost of a fixed asset due to normal usage, wear and tear, new technology, and other related reasons. The calculation of estimated life of wasting assets for depletion is more complex and is done on the basis of extensive survey of the capacity of the natural resource.

difference between depreciation and depletion

The reduced book value (i.e., fair value) becomes the amount that is reported in the balance sheet (Choice ). To answer this question you need to calculate what percentage of cost each method would use for first-year depreciation.


Amortization has two meanings in the world of finance. One relates to loans and how interest is applied and paid on those loans. Amortize literally means “to kill.” So, as you pay down a loan, you will eventually “kill” it.

difference between depreciation and depletion

Tangible assets, such as buildings, whose useful life is dependent on the life of the natural resource, are depreciated over the shorter of the life of the resource or the life of the asset itself. Operating Income means the Company’s or a business unit’s income from operations but excluding difference between depreciation and depletion any unusual items, determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Consolidated Amortization Expense means, for any period, the amortization expense of Borrower and its Subsidiaries for such period, determined on a consolidated basis in accordance with GAAP.

Divide the depreciable cost by the number of years decided for the asset’s life span. The resulting amount represents the value of your yearly depreciation for that asset. The reduction in value varies from one asset to the other.

difference between depreciation and depletion

Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization Expense Crude oil and natural gas properties. Hearst Newspapers participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites. Additionally, throughout the years these cars will tend to lose value because of their expected life value. While the MACRS model is the only one approved for tax depreciation, a model frequently used by corporations for book depreciation is the straight line model. In general, the value of an asset decreases with time because of age, wear, or obsolescence. Free access to premium services like Tuneln, Mubi and more.

Also based on common average values and experience, you will determine the item’s life span. The unit of revenue method can be used instead of the unit of production method. This calculation is essentially the current gross revenue divided by future gross revenues. Proved developed reserves are used to amortize the costs of wells and equipment, since these reserves are related to only those reserves that can be accessed with existing wells and equipment. The Internal Revenue Service rule requires that you use the cost method when dealing with timber. You are also supposed to use a method that produces the highest deduction when dealing with mineral property.

  • The use of depreciation is intended to spread expense recognition for fixed assets over the period of time when a business expects to earn revenue from those assets.
  • To allocate the expense of the equipment to each period of its use, you use a technique called depreciation.
  • Depletion is used to allocate the cost of natural resources such as timber or coal.
  • The accounting entry for depletion is similar to that of depreciation, with a charge to profit and loss account and accumulation in accumulated depletion account.
  • The depreciation models discussed up to this point apply to assets that can be replaced.
  • The resulting number is then divided into the estimated amount of total resource units.

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